Back ] Up ] Next ]

Some useful references:

1. Stars Over Hawaii by E. H. Bryan, Jr., was first published in 1955 by a company called BOOKS ABOUT HAWAII, but is long since out of print. A somewhat revised version was reprinted by The Petroglyph Press of Hilo, Hawaii, in 1977. Recently (September 2002) The Petroglyph Press (160 Kamehameha Avenue, Hilo, Hawaii 96720) has published a new version of Stars Over Hawaii, updated by Dr. Richard Crowe, Professor of Astronomy at UH-Hilo. This article, Night and Day, appears as an appendix in this new book.

Mr. Bryan, as a Curator of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum in Honolulu was a fount of knowledge on many subjects related to Hawaii and the Pacific area. Although not a professional astronomer, he was one of the early active amateur astronomers in Hawaii and a frequent observer (back in the 1920's) of variable stars at the University of Hawaii's observatory in Kaimuki. In 1955 there was no source of basic information about the sky as seen from Hawaii and so Mr. Bryan filled a much felt need by writing this 48-page booklet about the Sun, stars, and planets as seen from Hawaii. Two sections of this booklet relate to the topics discussed in this paper. One has to do with how the Sun appears to move. Here he makes use of the polar plot to show the apparent path of the Sun in altitude and azimuth. In our Figures 7a to 10a we have borrowed this idea from him. In another section he discusses the situation when the Sun casts no shadow. Here is an interesting diagram showing the daily northward progression of the Sun over the islands during May and June. Anyone interested in Hawaiian astronomy will find this a useful addition to one's library.

2. Astronomical Phenomena for the Year 2002, or for succeeding years, is prepared annually by the Nautical Almanac Office, United States Naval Observatory, and jointly by Her Majesty's Nautical Almanac Office, Royal Greenwich Observatory. It is available from the U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D.C. 20402-9329. This approximately 80-page booklet contains much useful information for observational astronomy, including tables of sunrise, sunset, twilight, and day-by-day tabulations of the equation of time and the declination of the Sun. For exact work, the graph of the equation of time (Fig.6) in this paper is not sufficiently accurate and the tabulation in this booklet will be useful. This booklet is abstracted from a much more comprehensive compendium of astronomical data called The Astronomical Almanac, published annually by the Superintendent of Documents.

3. Time in Astronomy, Edmund Scientific Company, Barrington, N.J. 08007. Popular Optics Library No. 9054. Published in 1966 and reprinted in 1980; now possibly out of print. Written for the amateur astronomer, this booklet describes the various kinds of solar time and sidereal time, how to make time conversions, and how to locate astronomical objects in the sky. Many useful diagrams.

4. The Exploratorium web site has an excellent discussion of the rising and setting points of the Sun and Moon as a function of the season and latitude of the observer.


Up ] Up ] Next ]